Immigrants Hall of Fame
Architect who gained fame for his imaginative, varied designs. Born in Finland. His works ranged from rectangular steel and glass (General Motors Technical Center near Detroit) to flowing masses of reinforced concrete (TWA Terminal at Kennedy Airport in New York City). He and his father, Eliel, himself a distinguished architect, settled in the U.S. in 1923. Saarinen gained recognition in 1948 when his design of the Gateway Arch for St. Louis won first prize in a national competition. Among his other works are the MIT Auditorium, Dulles International Airport, and the CBS Building in New York City.
Physician and medical researcher who developed the first oral live-virus polio vaccine. He spent nearly 25 years studying poliomyelitis. Born in Bialystok, Russia (now Poland). Sabin came to the U.S. in 1921. Became a citizen in 1930. He did research at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in New York City, among other places. Sabin also discovered B virus and developed vaccines against the viruses that cause dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis.
Considered the greatest American sculptor of the 19th century. Saint-Gaudens combined idealism with a realistic portrayal of his subjects. One of his most famous works is his statue of Abraham Lincoln in Lincoln Park, Chicago. Born in Dublin, Ireland, and brought to the U.S. as an infant. He began working at 13 when he took a job for a cameo cutter. Among his major public monuments are "Admiral Farragut" in Madison Square Garden, New York City; and the "Puritan" in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Anthropologist and linguist. He made pioneering studies on North American Indians languages and on the relationship between culture and personality. Born in Germany and brought to the United States as a boy. Sapir taught at Columbia and Yale universities. His books include "Time Perspective in the Aboriginal American Culture," and "Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech."
Anna Howard Shaw
Siamese Twins (1811-1874)
Franz Sigel (1824-1902)
Aviation engineer. Born in Kiev, Russia. In 1913 he built and flew the first multi-engine airplane. Came to the U.S. in 1919. Became a citizen in 1928. Sikorsky organized a plane-manufacturing company that later merged with United Aircraft Corporation. He designed the first 40-passenger transoceanic Clipper plane. Several types of helicopters used in World War II and the Korean War were developed by him.
A scientist who was the founder of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. He never set foot in the United States, but he is buried here -- a posthumous immigrant.
He was born in France, the son of Hugh Smithson, the first duke of Northumberland. He was brought to England as a boy and graduated from Oxford University in 1776, where he made a brilliant record in chemistry and mineralogy. In 1787 he was made a fellow of the royal Society. Zinc carbonate was named smitsonite in honor of his work in the chemistry of calamines. He inherited his fortune upon his mother's death in 1800.
He was buried in Genoa, Italy, until 1904, when his body was removed to Washington, D.C. Smithson left his fortune to his nephew with the provision that if the nephew died without children the money (a bequest of $500,000) would be given to the United States to establish an institution for the advancement of learning. That institution was created by Congress in 1846 as an "establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." Over the years, funds have been contributed both by individuals and the government. The Smithsonian buildings are on The Mall in Washington, D.C. The Institution conducts scientific research and explorations in many fields, has museum and art gallery exhibits, and publishes numerous papers and reports of its activities. Although the general public associates the museums with the Smithsonian Institution, not many are aware that the National Zoological Park and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts are part of the Smithsonian Institution.
Sammy Sosa (1968-
Newspaper correspondent and explorer of Africa. The New York Herald sent Stanley to find Dr. David Livingston, the British missionary explorer of Africa. The difficult but successful search for Dr. Livingston made Stanley famous. Stanleys four expeditions to Africa during 1871-1890 helped fill in many of the gaps in African geography.
Stanley was born John Rowlands, near Denbigh, Wales, and as a child was sent to a home for the poor. At 16 he sailed as a cabin boy to New Orleans, where he was adopted by a wealthy merchant who gave him his name. At the beginning of the American Civil War, Stanley enlisted in the Confederate Army. He was soon taken prisoner, then released, and later entered the Union Navy. After the war, Stanley turned to journalism.
For the New York Herald, Stanley set out from Zanzibar in March 1871, with 92 men to find Livingston. On November 10 the two explorers met at Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. Stanley later wrote "How I Found Livingston," an immediate success.
Electrical engineer and mathematician. Born in Breslau, Germany. A cripple all his life. While a student, Steinmetz was forced to leave Germany because of his socialist activities. Came to the U.S. in 1889. Steinmetz worked for the General Electric Company, for whom he conducted many important electrical experiments. Through his investigations of magnetism, he discovered the law of hysteresis, a principle of great value to manufacturers of motors, generators, and other types of electrical apparatus. He also introduced a method, still in use, for making alternating current calculations. In 1921, he made artificial lightning in his laboratory.
Iron and glass manufacturer. Born in Germany and in 1750 immigrated to Philadelphia, where he gained fame and wealth as an ironmaster. He founded Manheim, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Stiegel imported skilled glassmakers, and produced a thin, brilliant glassware that is a collectors item today. He was known as "Baron" because of his extravagant manner of living. He became bankrupt during the American Revolutionary War and died in poverty.
Leopold Stokowski (1882 - )
Nathan Straus (1848-1931)
Composer and conductor. He ranks among the most significant of 20th century composers for developing the resources, forms, and treatment of musical material. Born near St. Petersburg, Russia. His youthful compositions attracted ballet producers, who commissioned him to write "The Firebird," "Petrouchka," and "The Rite of Spring." These works became landmarks in the concert halls. Stravinsky left Russia in 1910 and lived for a time in Rome and Switzerland. After World War I he made his home in Paris and became a French citizen. In 1939, he made the U.S. his permanent home, become a citizen in 1945. To celebrate his citizenship, he wrote "Scenes de Ballet." Among his later musical compositions are "Noah and the Floor" and "Elegy for J.F.K."
Prolific painter. Born in England and as a child was brought to South Carolina. In 1809 he became a U.S. citizen. Sullys work has been described as lacking imagination and yet his name endures. He was commissioned to paint a portrait of Queen Victoria. He also pained "Washington Crossing the Delaware."
A pioneer in California. Gold was discovered on his land. Born in Kandern, Baden, Germany. He later became a Swiss citizen and served in the Swiss army. He came to St. Louis in 1834 and eventually made his way to California (which at that time was part of Mexico). In 1839 Sutter founded Nueva Helvetia, which later became Sacramento. Known as "General" Sutter, he was made a Mexican citizen in 1841 and ruled his vast grants of land in California with almost complete independence. When gold was discovered at Sutters Mill on his estate in 1848, squatters settled on his land and he lost everything. After the Mexican-American War, the California Legislature granted Sutter a pension. Sutter moved to Lititz, Pennsylvania, in 1871 and unsuccessfully petitioned Congress for relief.