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Frances Xavier Cabrini (1850-1917)
The first U.S. citizen to become a Roman Catholic saint. Born in Lodi, Italy. Pope Leo XIII sent her to the United States in 1889 to work among Italian-Americans. Mother Cabrini opened orphanages, missions, and hospitals. She lived for a long time in Chicago where she aided Italian immigrants. Became a U.S. citizen in 1909. Canonized in 1946.

Alexander Campbell (1788-1866)
     Clergyman who founded a religious group which eventually developed into the denomination known as the "Disciples of Christ." They are also often called "Campbellites." He found Bethany College (West Virginia) in 1840. Born in County Antrim, Ireland. Arrived in U.S. in 1809.

Stokely Carmichael (1941-1998 )
     Civil rights leader who was a leading spokesman for the "Black Power" movement of the late 1960s. Born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, West Indies. He moved with his family to Harlem in New York City in 1952. Graduated from Howard University in 1964. As the Chairman of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, Carmichael was arrested many times for his civil rights activities and demonstrations. In 1968-69 he was prime minister of the Black Panther Party. He and his wife (singer Miriam Makeba) became citizens of Uganda in 1973. Carmichael popularized the slogan "Hell No We Won’t Go" during the Vietnam War.

Andrew Carnegie (1837-1919)
     Industrialist and philanthropist. Carnegie made his fortune in the iron and steel industry. In 1899 he merged all his holdings and formed the Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh. By 1900 the company was producing about a fourth of all the country’s steel. Wishing to retire, Carnegie sold his company in 1901 to the newly-formed United States Steel Corporation of J.P. Morgan. For his share, Carnegie personally received $250,000,000, an enormous sum at the time.
     Born in Dunfermline, Scotland. After his father, a weaver, lost his job, the family moved to what is now Pittsburgh in 1848. As an 11-year-old Carnegie worked in a cotton mill for $1.20 a week. When he was 14 he became a telegraph messenger boy. Two years later, having taught himself to send and receive messages, he was made a telegraph operator, at $4 a week. ... He saved money all his life, made advantageous friendships and wise investments. (In today's dollar, Carnegie was worth about $100 billion -- second only to John D. Rockefeller as the richest Americans of all time.)
     And yet, Carnegie was as ruthless as any industrialist during America's Gilded Age.  He stood behind the scenes, for example, as his chief executive, Henry Clay Frick, crushed organized labor at the steel mills (especially in the bloody Homestead showdown) by importing cheap workers among Slav, Hungarian, and Italian immigrants.  Carnegie, who encouraged Frick, was obsessed with reducing costs and treated labor like a commodity.  He later got rid of Frick when the two disagreed on business matters. In public, however, he portrayed himself as a benevolent, progressive man who boasted that "Mr. Carnegie took no man's job."
     Upon his retirement from business, the richest man in the world started to give money away on a scale never seen before in the United States. He gave away about $350,000,000 to build libraries, advance education and science, promote world peace, and to support other cultural and welfare work. Among his philanthropic foundations are the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Carnegie Library, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Yet another of his groups, the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, was established for the purpose of rewarding persons who perform heroic deeds not required of them in their daily lives.
     In an essay, "The Gospel of Wealth," Carnegie wrote that a rich man was merely a trustee of his fortune and that it was his duty to distribute it "for the improvement of mankind."

Carlos Castaneda (? - 1998)
      Author of "The Teachings of Don Juan, A Yaqui Way of Knowledge" and eight other best-selling books about Don Juan, a Mexican Yaqui Indian shaman who uses peyote to induce spiritual visions. Castaneda asserted that Don Juan was a real person whom he met at a Greyhound bus station in Nogales, Arizona, in the summer of 1960 while Castaneda was researching medicinal plants as a UCLA graduate anthropology student.  Later in life, it was thought by many, including his former wife Margaret, that Castaneda invented the character of Don Juan. His books sold 8 million copies in 17 languages.
     In these books, Castaneda, as Don Juan's apprentice, takes peyote to break away from ordinary reality. He sees giant insects, flies like a crow, speaks to cactus, and is chased by inorganic beings in the pursuit of "pure energy."
     Castaneda kept to himself most of his life, never granting interviews and refusing to be photographed or his voice to be recorded. According to his wife, he grew up in the small Peruvian village of Cajamarca. As a child he walked the square where herbs were sold and listened to magical stories told by local curanderos and Quechua Indians.
     As a penniless immigrant in Los Angeles, Castaneda worked for the Mattel Toy co., drove a cab, and worked at a liquor store in order to finance his education.  On his death, Castaneda's estate was worth a reported $20 million to $50 million.
     Some people believed Castaneda became a sorcerer with supernatural  "powers." His wife certainly did: "To this day when I see a crow I say, 'Carlos, is that you?' "

      Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995)
    NASA's named its orbiting telescope the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of this Indian-American Nobel laureate, one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century.
     Born in Lahore, India. Immigrated to U.S. in 1937 and naturalized in 1953. He was popularly known as Chandra -- which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit.
     One of his achievements was his demonstration that there is an upper limit -- now called the Chandrasekhar limit -- to the mass of a white dwarf star. A white dwarf is the last stage in the evolution of a star. When the nuclear energy source in the center of a star such as the sun is exhausted, it collapses to form a white dwarf. This discovery is basic to much of modern astrophysics, since it shows that stars much more massive than the sun must either explode or form black holes.
     Chandra was a faculty member of the University of Chicago. For many years he served as editor of the Astrophysical Journal and turned it into a first-class publication.  In 1983 he was awarded the Nobel prize for his theoretical studies of the physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars.     

Louis Chevrolet (1978-1941)
     Carmaker. Born in Switzerland and raised in France. He was a noted engineer, inventor, designer, builder, and sportsman who had a special slogan: "Never give up." He built and sold bicycles, designed a wine barrel pump, and began his official racing career in 1905. He took an active part in Buick’s racing team and introduced his first Chevrolet automobile in 1911.

Morris Raphael Cohen (1880-1947)
Philosopher who united pragmatism with logical positivism and linguistic analysis. He exercised great influence in legal philosophy with such works as "Reason and Nature," and "Law and the Social Order." Born in Minsk, Russia; came to the U.S. in 1892.







     In an essay, "The Gospel of Wealth," Andrew Carnegie wrote that a rich man was merely a trustee of his fortune and that it was his duty to distribute it "for the improvement of mankind."


     "Tell Mr. Carnegie I'll meet him in hell, where we are both going."
Henry Clay Frick,
of his former boss.




     "Hell no, we won't go."
Stokely Carmichael



     "To this day when I see a crow I say, 'Carlos, is that you?' "
Mrs. Carlos Castaneda



     "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein."
Martin Rees,
 Great Britain's Astronomer Royal